Historia
bai Nikolaos Gysis (1892)

Ischri (frah Griik ἱστορία, historia, miinin "ingkwairi, nalij akwaya bai investigieshan")[1] a di todi a di paas, potikiula ou iriliet tu yuuman[2][3]. Ia wah ambrela toerm we riliet tu paas ivent azwel di memri, diskovri, kalekshan, aaganizieshan, prezentieshan, ah intoerpritieshan a infamieshan bout demya ivent. Skala uu rait bout ischri kaal istuorian. Ivent we okor praya tu raitdong rekaad kansida priischri.

Ischri kiah azwel refa tu di akademik disiplin we yuuz naritiv fi egzamin ah analaiz siikuens a paas ivent, ah abjektivli ditoermin di patan a kaaz ah ifek we ditoermin dem. Istuorian sohtaim dibiet di niecha a ischri ah iyuusfulnis bai diskos di todi a di disiplin az a hen ina iself ah az a wie fi provaid "pospektiv" pah di prablem a di prezent.

Tuori kaman tu potikiula kolcha bot no supuot bai extoernal suos (laka di tuoridem bout King Aata), yuujali klasifai az kolchral eritij ar lejin, bikaa deh no shuo di "disinchrestid investigieshan" rikwaya a di disiplin a ischri. Eroduotus, wah 5f-senchri BKE Griik istuorian kansida widin di Westan chradishan fi bi di "faada a ischri", ah, langsaida ih kantempareri Tuusididiiz, elp faam di foundieshan fi di madan todi a yuuman ischri. Piipl kantiniu fi riid deh wok tide, ah di giap bitwiin di kolcha-fuokos Eroduotos ah di milichri-fuokos Tuusididiiz rimien a paint a kantenshan ar apruoch ina madan istarikal raitn. Ina Ieja, wah stiet kranikl, di Pring ah Aatom Anal eh-nuo fi bi kompail frah az hoerli az 722 BKE alduo onggl 2n senchri BKE tex sovaiv.

Ienshent influens eh-elp spaan vieriant intoerpritieshan a di niecha a ischri we eh-ivalv uoba di senchri ah kantiniu fi chienj tide. Di madan todi a ischri waid-rienjin, ah ingkluud di todi a spisifik riijan ah di todi a soertn tapikal ar tiimatikal eliment a istarikal investigieshan. Noftaim ischri tiich az paat a praimri ah sekanderi edikieshan, ah di akademik todi a ischri a mieja disiplin ina yunivoersiti todi.

Kantent

EtimalajiEdit

Di wod ischri oltimetli koh frah Ienshent Griik ἱστορία[4] (historía), miinin "ingkwairi", "nalij frah ingkwairi", ar "joj". A weh ina dat sens we Aristakl yuuz di wod ina ih Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι[5] (Perì Tà Zôa Ηistoríai "Ingkwairi bout Animal"). Di ansista wod ἵστωρ ates hoerli aan ina Uomerik Im, Eraklaitos, di Atiinian ifiib uot, ah ina Boyotik inskripshan (ina liigal sens, aida "joj" ar "witnis", ar simila).

Di Griik wod eh-baara put ina Klasikal Latn az historia, miinin 'investigieshan, ingkwairi, risaach, akount, diskripshan, raitdong akount a paas ivent, raitin a ischri, istarikal naritiv, rikaadid nalij a paas ivent, tuori, naritiv'. Ischri weh baara frah Latn (pasibl vaya Uol Airish ar Uol Welsh) ina Uol Ingglish az stær ('ischri, naritiv, tuori'), bot dis wod jrapout a yuus ina di liet Uol Ingglish piiriad[6].

Miinwail, az Latn eh-bikom Uol French (ah Angglo-Naaman), historia divelop ina faam laka istorie, estoire, ah historie, wid nyuu divelopment ina di miinin: 'akount a di ivent a smadi laif (bignin a di 12f senchri), kranikl, akount a ivent az relivant tu a gruup a piipl ar piipl jinarali (1155), jramatik ar piktuorial riprizentieshan a istarikal ivent (c. 1240), badi a nalij relitiv tu yuuman evaluushan, sayans (c. 1265), naritiv a riil ar imajineri ivent, tuori (c. 1462)'[6].

A weh frah Angglo-Naaman we history weh baara fram put ina Migl Ingglish, ah dis taim di luon stik. Iapier ina di toertiint-senchri Ancrene Riwle, bot siim fi bikom kaman wod ina di liet fuotiint senchri, wid wah hoerli atestieshan we apier ina Jan Gowa (John Gower) Confessio Amantis a di 1390z (VI.1383): 'I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire'. Ina Migl Ingglish, di miinin a ischri ena "tuori" jinarali. Di rischrikshan tu di miinin 'di branch a nalj we diil wid paas ivent; di faamal rekaad ar todi a paas ivent, esp. yuuman afier' kombout ina di mid-fiftiint senchri[6].

Wid di Renesans, uola sens a di wod eh-rivaiv, ah a wena ina di Griik sens we Fransis Biekan (Francis Bacon) yuuz di toerm ina di liet sixtiint senchri, wen ih eh-rait bout "Nachral Ischri". Fi im, historia wena "di nalij a abjek ditoermin bai spies ah taim", da saat a nalij provaid bai rimembrans (wails sayans eh-provaid bai riizn, ah puoychri eh-provaid bai fantasi)[7].

Ina hexpreshan a di lingguistik sintetik vs. analitik/aisolietin daikatami, Ingglish laka Chaini (史 vs. 诌) nou dezigniet sepret wod fi yuuman ischri ah tuoritelin jinarali. Siem wie, Jumiekan languij fala Ingglish. Ina madan Joerman, French, ah muos Joermanik ah Romans languij, we salidli sintetik ah aili inflek, di siem wod stil yuuz fi miin buot "ischri" ah "tuori".

Di ajitiv istarikal ates frah 1661, ah istarik frah 1669[8].

Istuorian ina di sens a "risaacha a ischri" ates frah 1531. Ina haal Yuropiyan languij, di sobstantiv "ischri" stil yuuz fi miin buot "wa apm wid man", ah "di skalali todi a wa apm, di lata sens sohtaim distingguish wid a kiapital leta, "Ischri", ar di wod istuoriagrafi[5].

DiskripshanEdit

 
Taikl piej tu Di Istuorian Ischri a di Wol (The Historians' History of the World.

Istuorian rait ina di kantex a fideh uona taim, ah wid juu rigyaad tu di korant daminant aidie a ou fi intoerprit di paas, ah sohtaim rait fi provaid lesn fi deh uona sasayati. Frah outa Benideto Kroche (Benedetto Croce) mout, "Aal ischri a kantempri ischri". Ischri fasilitiet bai di faamieshan a 'chuu diskuos a di paas' chuu di prodokshan a naritiv ah analisis a paas ivent we riliet tu di yuuman ries[9]. Di madan disiplin a ischri dedikiet tu di instityuushanal prodokshan a dis diskuos.

Aal ivent we memba ah prizaab ina som aatentik faam kanstityuut di istarikal rekaad[10]. Di taas a istarikal diskuos a fi aidentifai di suos we kiah muos yuusfuli kanchribiut tu di prodokshan a akiuret akount a di paas. Sobiin, di kanstityuushan a di istuorian aakaiv a rizolt a soerkomskraib muo jinaral aakaiv bai invalidiet di yuusij a soertn tex ah dakiument (bai falsifai deh kliem fi riprizent di 'chuu paas').

Di todi a ischri sohtaim eh-klasifai az paat a di yuumanitiz ah ada taim az paat a suoshal sayans[11]. Ikiah azwel si az brij bitwiin demde tuu braad ieria, tu ou i ingkaapariet metadalaji frah buot. Som indivijual istuorian supuot chrang-chrang wan ar di ada klasifikieshan[12]. Ina di 20t senchri, French istuorian Foernan Braadel (Fernand Braudel) revaluushanaiz di todi a ischri, bai yuuz soch outsaid disiplin az ikanamix, anchopalaji, ah jaagrafi ina di todi a gluobal ischri.

Chradishanali, istuorian eh-rikaad ivent a di paas, aida ina raitn ar bai paasaan uoral chradishan, ah eh-atemp fi hansa istarikal kuestian chuu di todi a raitdong dakiument ah uoral akount. Frah di bignin, istuorian eh-yuuz azwel soch suos laka maniument, inskripshan, ah picha. Jinarali, di suos a istarikal nalij kiah separiet ina chrii kiatigari: wa raitdong, wa se, ah wa fizikali prizaab, ah istuorian noftaim kansolt di chrii a dem[13]. Bot raitn a di maaka we separiet ischri frah wa kom bifuo.

Aakialaji a disiplin we espeshal elpful fi diil wid beri sait ah abjik, we, wans deh anoert, kanchribiut tu di todi a ischri. Bot aakialaji rierli tan pani uon. Iyuuz naritiv suos fi kampliment idiskovridem. Ousomeba, aakialaji kanstityuut bai a rienj a metadalaji ah apruoch we indipendant frah ischri; dat a fi se, aakialaji no "ful di giap" widin texchal suos. A chuu se "istarikal aakialaji" a spisifik branch a aakialaji, ah noftaim wi kanchraas ikangkluujan gens demde a kantempareri texchal suos. Fi egzampl, Mark Leone, di exkivieta ah intoprita a istarikal Anapolis, Mierilan, USA, ena-siik fi andastan di kanchradikshan bitwiin texchal dakiument ah di matiirial rekaad, fi demanschriet di pozeshan a sliev ah di inikualiti a welt aparent vaya di todi a di tuotal istarikal invairament, dispait di aidialaji a "libati" inerent ina raitn dakiument a disya taim.

Uoliip a difrah-difrah wie de fi ou ischri kiah aaganaiz, ingkluudn kranalajikal, kolchral, terituorial, ah tiimatik. Demya divijan no myuuchali exkluusiv, ah signifikant uovalap noftaim prezant, laka ina "The International Women's Movement in an Age of Transition, 1830–1975." Ipasebl fi istuorian kansoern dehself wid buot di veri spisifik ah di veri jinaral, alduo di madan chren ena tuwadz speshalizieshan. Di ieria kaal Big Ischri rizis dis speshalizieshan, ah saach fi yunivoersal patan ar chren. Ischri muotaim eh-todi wid som praktikal ar tioretikal iem, bot aalso kiah todi outa simpl intilekchal kiuriasiti.

IschriagrafiEdit

 
Taikl piej tu "Di Ischri a Itali" (La Historia d'Italia).

Ischriagrafi ab wah nomba a rilietid miinin. Fos, ikiah refa tu ou ischri eh-projuus: di tuori a di divelopment a metadalaji ah praktis (fi egzampl, di muuv frah shaat-toerm bayagrafikal naritiv tuwadz lang-toerm tiimatik analisis). Sekan, ikiah refa tu wa eh-projuus: spisifik badi a istarikal raitn (fi egzampl, "midiival ischriagrafi juurin di 1960z" miin "Wok a midiival ischri we rait juurin di 1960z"). Tod, imaita kiah refa tu wamek ischri projuus: di Filasafi a ischri. Az meta-lebl analisis a diskripshan a di paas, dis tod kansepshan kiah riliet tu di fos tuu as ou di analisis yuujali fuokos pah di naritiv, intopritieshan, wolvyuu, yuus a evidens, ar metad a prizentieshan a ada istuorian. Profeshanal istuorian azwel dibiet di kuestian a weda ischri kiah tiich az singgl koerent naritiv ar az siiriz a kompiitin naritiv[14][15].

Filasafi a ischriEdit

Filasafi a ischri a branch a filasafi kansoernin di ivenchal signifikans, ef heni, a yuuman ischri. Foerdamuo, ispekiuliet az tu pasibl tiliolajikal hen tu idivelopment—dat a, iax ef heni dizain, poerpos, direktiv prinsipl, ar fainaliti de ina di pruosesdem a yuuman ischri. Filasafi a ischri shudn kanfyuuz wid ischriagrafi, we a di todi a ischri az akademik disiplin, ah so kansoern imetad ah praktisdem, ah idivelopment az disiplin uoba taim. Filasafi a ischri shudn kanfyuuz naida wid di ischri a filasafi, we a di todi a di divelopment a filasafikal aidie chuu taim.

Istarikal metadEdit

Istarikal metad
 
Dipikshan a di ienshent Laibri a Aligzanjria.

Di istarikal metad kompraiz di tekniik ah gaidlain fi ou istuorian fi yuuz praimri suos ah ada evidens fi risaach ah den fi rait ischri. Eroduotos a Alikaanasos (484 BKE – ca.425 BKE)[16] jinarali akliem az di "faada a ischri". Ousomeba, ih kantempri Tuusididiiz (ca. 460 BKE – ca. 400 BKE) kredit fi fos apruoch ischri wi wel-divelop istarikal metad ina ih wok di Ischri a di Pelapaniijan Waar. Tuusididiiz, no komiin laka Eroduotos, eh-rigyaad ischri az di prodok a di chais ah akshan a yuuman biin, ah ih luk pah kaaz ah ifek, reda dah az di rizolt a divain intavenshan.[16] Ina ih istarikal metad, Tuusididiiz emfasaiz kranalaji, a nyuuchral paint a vyuu, ah se di yuuman wol ena di rizolt a di akshan a yuuman biin. Griik istuorian azwel vyuu ischri az saiklikal, wid ivent a-rikor pah di regla.[17] Istarikal chradishan ah sofistikietid yuus a istarikal metad eh yuuz ina ienshent ah midiival Chaina. Di grongwok fi profeshanal ischriagrafi ina Iis Ieja weh extablish bai di An Dainasti kuot istuorian nuo az Sima Chian (Sima Qian 145–90 BC), aata a di Shiji (Rekaad a di Gran Istuorian). Fi di kualiti a ih raitn wok, Sima Chian nuo pastyuumos az di Faada a Chaini Ischriagrafi. Chaini istuorian a sobsikuent dainastik piiriad a Chaina yuuz ih Shiji az di ofishal faamat fi istarikal tex, azwel fi bayografikal lichicha.

Sint Agostin eh influenshal ina Kristian ah Westan taat a di bignin a di midiival piiriad. Chuu di Midiival ah Renesans piiriad, ischri muotaim eh-todi chuu siekrid ar rilijos pospektiv. Arong 1800, Joerman filasafa ah istuorian Gyaag Vilem Friijrik Hiegel (Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel) bring iin filasafi ah muo sekiula apruoch ina istarikal todi.[18]

Ina di prefes tu ih buk, di Muqaddimah (1377), di Arab istuorian ah hoerli suosialajis, Ibn Khaldun, waan bout sebm mistiek we ih tingk se istuorian komit pah di regla. Ina dis kritisizim, ih apruoch di paas az chrienj ah niid fi intoerprit. Di arijinaliti a Ibn Khaldun eh fi kliem se di kolchral difrans a waneda iej mos goban di ivaliuyeshan a relivant istarikal matiirial, fi distingguish di prinsipl askaadn tu we imaita pasibl fi atemp di ivaliuyeshan, ah laas, fi fiil di niid fi expiirians, adishanal tu rashanal prinsipl, az tu ou fi ases kolcha a di paas. Ibn Khaldun noftaim kritisaiz "aigl syuupastishan ah ankritikal axeptans a istarikal dieta." Az a rizolt, ih inchajuus sayantifik metad tu di todi a ischri, ah ih muotaim refa tui az ih "nyuu sayans"[19] Ih istarikal metad aalso lie di grongwok fi di abzavieshan a di ruol a stiet, komiunikieshan, prapagianda ah sistimatik bayas ina ischri,[20] ah so ih kansida fi bi di "faada a ischriagrafi"[21][22] ar di "faada a di filasafi a ischri".[23]

Ina di Wes, istuorian divelop madan metad a ischriagrafi ina di 17t ah 18t senchri, espeshal ina Frans ah Joermani. Di 19t-senchri istuorian wid di grietis influens pah metad ena Liopuol van Rangk (Leopold von Ranke) ina Joermani.

Ina di 20t senchri, akademik istuorian eh-fuokos les pah hepik nashinalistik naritiv, we muotaim eh-ten fi gluorifai di nieshan ar griet mandem, tu muo abjektiv ah komplex analisis a suoshal ah intilekchal fuos. Wah mieja chren a istarikal metadalaji ina di 20t senchri ena di tendansi fi chriit ischri muo az suoshal sayans reda dah az aat, we chradishanali eh di kies. Som a di liidn advoket a ischri az suoshal sayans ena wah daivoers kalekshan a skala we ingkluud Fernand Braudel, E. H. Carr, Fritz Fischer, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Bruce Trigger, Marc Bloch, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Peter Gay, Robert Fogel, Lucien Febvre ah Lawrence Stone. Nof a di advoket a ischri az suoshal sayans nuot fi deh molti-disiplineri apruoch. Braudel eh-kombain ischri wid jaagrafi, Bracher ischri wid palitikal sayans, Fogel ischri wid ikanamix, Gay ischri wid saikalaji, Trigger ischri wid aakialaji wails Wehler, Bloch, Fischer, Stone, Febvre ah Le Roy Ladurie ina difrah-difrah wie eh-amalgamiet ischri wid suoshalaji, jaagrafi, anchopalaji, ahd ikanamix. Muo riisantli, di fiil a dijital ischri eh-bigin fi ajres wie fi yuuz kompyuuta teknalaji fi puoz nyuu kuestian tu istarikal dieta ah jinariet dijital skalaship.

Ina apozishan tu di kliem a ischri az suoshal sayans, istuorian laka Hugh Trevor-Roper, John Lukacs, Donald Creighton, Gertrude Himmelfarb ah Gerhard Ritter eh-aagiu se di kii tu istuorian wok ena di powa a di imajinieshan, ah so deh kanten se ischri shuda andastan az aat. French istuorian asosiet wid di Annales Skuul inchajuus kuantitietiv ischri, bai yuuz raa dieta fi chrak di laif a tipikal indivijal, ah deh weh praminant ina di extablishment a kolchral ischri (cf. histoire des mentalités). Intilekchal istuorian laka Herbert Butterfield, Ernst Nolte ah George Mosse eh-aagiu fi di signifikans a aidie ina ischri. Amoerkan istuorian, motiviet bai di sivl raits era, fuokos pah di faamali uovaluk etnik, rieshal, ah suosho-ikanamik gruupdem. Wah nex jaahra a suoshal ischri fi imoerj ina di puos-WWII era ena Alltagsgeschichte (Ischri a Ebridie Laif). Skala laka Martin Broszat, Ian Kershaw ah Detlev Peukert ena-siik fi egzamin ou ebridie laif eh-tan fi aadineri piipl ina 20t-senchri Joermani, espeshal ina di Naatsi piiriad.

Maaxis istuorian laka Eric Hobsbawm, E. P. Thompson, Rodney Hilton, Georges Lefebvre, Eugene D. Genovese, Isaac Deutscher, C. L. R. James, Timothy Mason, Herbert Aptheker, Arno J. Mayer ah Christopher Hill ena-siik fi validiet Kaal Maax tiori bai analaiz ischri frah Maaxis pospektiv. Ina rispans tu di Maaxis intopritieshan a ischri, istuorian laka François Furet, Richard Pipes, J. C. D. Clark, Roland Mousnier, Henry Ashby Turner ah Robert Conquest aafa anti-Maaxis intopritieshan a ischri. Feminis istuorian laka Joan Wallach Scott, Claudia Koonz, Natalie Zemon Davis, Sheila Rowbotham, Gisela Bock, Gerda Lerner, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, ah Lynn Hunt eh-aagiu fi di impuotans a todi a di expiirians a uman ina di paas. Ina riisant ier, puosmadanis chalinj di validiti ah niid fi di todi a ischri pah di biesis se aal ischri bies pah di poersnal intopritieshan a suos. Ina ih 1997 buk In Defence of History, Richard J. Evans, profesa a madan ischri a Kiembrij Yunivoersiti, difen di wot a ischri. Wahneda difens a ischri frah puos-madanis kritisizim ena di Aschrielian istuorian Keith Windschuttle 1994 buk, The Killing of History.

Ieria a todiEdit

PiiriadEdit

Istarikal todi noftaim fuokos pah ivent ah divelopment we okor ina potikiula blak a taim. Istuorian gi niem tu demya piiriad a taim fi lou fi "aaganaiz aidie ah klasifikiechri jinaralizieshan" fi kiah yuuz bai istuorian[24]. Di niem deh gi tu a piiriad kiah vieri wid jaagrafikal lokieshan, sieh wie di diet a di staat ah hen a potikiula piiriad. Senchri ah deked a kaman piiriad fi yuuz ah di taim deh riprizent dipen pah di dietin sistim deh yuuz. Muos piiriad kanschrok rechrospektivli ah so riflek valiu jojment deh mek bout di paas. Di wie piiriad kanschrok ah di niem deh gi dem kiah afek di wie deh vyuu ah todi[25].

Priistarik piiriadizieshanEdit

Di fiil a ischri jinarali lef priischri tu aakialajis, uu ab wah wuol difrah set a tuul ah tiori. Di yuujal metad fi piiriadizieshan a di distant priistarik paas, ina aakialaji a fi rilai pah chienj ina matiirial kolcha ah teknalaji, laka di Stuon Iej, Branz Iej ah hAyan Iej ah deh sob-divijan azwel bies pah difrah-difrah stail a matiirial rimienz. Spaita di divelopment uoba riisant deked a di abiliti chuu riediokaaban dietin ah ada sayantifik metad fi gi akchual diet fi nof sait ar aatifak, demya lang-extablish skiim siim laikli fi rimien ina yuus. Ina nof kies niebarin kolcha wid raitn eh-lef som ischri a kolcha widoutni, we kiah yuuz.

Jaagrafikal lokieshanEdit

Potikiula jaagrafikal lokieshan kiah faam di biesis fi istarikal todi, fi egzampl, kantinent, konchri ah siti. Fi andastan wamek istarik ivent eh-tek plies impuotant. Fi du dis, istuorian noftaim ton tu jaagrafi. Weda patan, di waata soplai, ah di lanskiep a di plies aal a dem afek di laif a di piipl uu eh-lib de. Fi egzampl, fi explien wamek di ienshent Iijipshan divelop soch a soksesful siblaizieshan, i isenshal fi todi di jaagrafi a Iijip. Iijipshan siblaizieshan eh-bil pah di bangkin a di Nail Riva, we flod ebri ier, ah dipazit sail pah ibangkin. Di rich sail kuda eh-elp faama gruo anof krap fi fiid di piipl ina di sitidem. Dat eh-miin se a no ebribadi afi faam, so som piipl kuda pofaam adahels jab we elp divelop di siblaizieshan.

Milichri ischriEdit

Milichri ischri kansoern waarfier, chratiji, bakl, wepan, ah di saikalaji a kombat. Di "nyuu milichri ischri" sens di 1970z kansoern wid suoja muo dah di jinaraldem, wid saikalaji muo dah tatix, ah wid di braada impak a waarfier pah sasayati ah kolcha[26].

Ischri a rilijanEdit

Di ischri a rilijan ena di mien tiim fi buot sekiula ah rilijos istuorian fi senchri, ah deh kantiniu fi tiichi ina semineri ah akadiim. Liidn joernal ingkluud Choch Ischri, Kiaklik Istarikal Rivyuu, ah Ischri a Rilijan. Tapik rienj waid-waid frah palitikal ah kolchral ah aatistik daimenshan, tu tiyalaji ah litaji[27]. Dis sobjek todi rilijan frah aal riijan ah ieria a di wol eniwe yuuman eh-lib[28].

Suoshal ischriEdit

Suoshal ischri, sohtaim kaal di nyuu suoshal ischri, a di fiil we ingkluud ischri a aadneri piipl ah deh chratiji ah instityuushan fi kuop wid laif[29]. Ina i"guolin iej" iwena mieja gruot fiil ina di 1960z ah 1970z mongx skala, ah stil wel riprizent ina ischri dipaatment. Ina di tuu deked frah 1975 tu 1995, di propuoshan a profesa a ischri ina Moerkan yunivoersiti aidentifai wid suoshal ischri riez frah 31% tu 41%, wails di propuoshan a palitikal istuorian jrap frah 40% tu 30%[30]. Ina di ischri dipaatment a British yunivoersiti ina 2007, a di 5723 fakolti memba, 1644 (29%) aidentifai dehself wid suoshal ischri wails palitikal ischri kom nex wid 1425 (25%)[31]. Di "uol" suoshal ischri bifuo di 1960z ena ajpaj a tapik widoutn no senchral tiim, ah noftaim iweh-ingkluud palitikal muuvment, laka Papiulizim, we eh "suoshal" ina di sens se iweh-de outsaida di iliit sistim. Suoshal ischri eh-kanchraas wid palitikal ischri, intilekchual ischri ah di ischri a soh griet man. Ingglish istuorian G. M. Chrivelian (Trevelyan) eh-siit az di brijin paint bitwiin ikanamik ah palitikal ischri, ah riflek se, "Widoutn suoshal ischri, ikanamik ischri baren ah palitikal ischri anintelijebl"[32]. Wails di fiil noftaim eh-vyuu negitiv az ischri wid di palitix lefout, iweh difen azwel az "ischri wid di piipl putiin bak"[33].

Kolchral ischriEdit

Kolchral ischri

Kolchral ischri eh-riplies suoshal ischri az di daminant faam ina di 1980z ah 1990z. Itipikali kombain di apruoch a anchopalaji ah ischri fi luk pah languij, papila kolchral chradishan ah kolchral intopritieshan a istarikal expiirians. Iegzamin di rekaad ah naritiv diskripshan a paas nalij, kostam, ah aats a gruup a piipl. Ou piipl kanschrok deh rimembrans a di paas a mieja tapik. Kolchral ischri ingkluud di todi a aat ina sasayati azwel di todi a himij ah yuuman vijual prodokshan (aikanagrafi)[34].

Diplumatik ischriEdit

Diplumatik ischri fuokos pah di rilieshanship bitwiin nieshan, praimerili rigyaadin diplumasi ah di kaaz a waar. Muo lietli iluk pah di kaaz a piis ah yuuman raits. Itipikali prizent di vyuupaint a di farin afis, ah lang-toerm schratiijik valiu, az di jraibin fuos a kantinyuiti ah chienj ina ischri. Dis taip a palitikal ischri a di todi a di kandok a intanashinal rilieshan bitwiin stiet ar kraas stiet bongjri uoba taim. Istuorian Murel Chiembalin (Muriel Chamberlain) nuot se afta di Fos Wol Waar:

diplumatik ischri riplies kanstityuushanal ischri az di flagship a istarikal investigieshan, sieh taim di muos impuotant, muos egzak ah muos sofistikietid a istarikal todi[35].

Shi had se dat afta 1945, di chren rivoers, fi lou suoshal ischri fi ripliesi.

Ikanamik ischriEdit

Alduo ikanamik ischri eh wel extablish sens di liet 19t senchri, ina riisant ier akademik todi shif muo ah muo tuwadz ikanamix dipaatment ah awe frah chradishanal ischri dipaatment[36]. Biniz ischri diil wid di ischri a indivijal biniz aaganizieshan, biniz metad, gobament regilieshan, lieba rilieshan, ah impak pah sasayati. Iazwel ingkluud bayagrafi a indivijal kompini, egzekiutiv, ah anchapanior. Iriliet tu ikanamik ischri; Biniz ischri muostaim tiich ina biniz skuul[37].

Invairamental ischriEdit

Invairamental ischri a nyuu fiil we imoerj ina di 1980z fi luk pah di ischri a di invairament, espeshal ina di lang ron, ah di impak a yuuman aktiviti pani[38].

Wol ischriEdit

Wol ischri a di todi a mieja siblaizieshan uoba di laas 3000-ad ier. Wol ischri a praimerili a tiichin fiil, reda dah risaach fiil. Igien papilariti ina di Yunaitid Stiet[39], Japan[40] ah adaels konchri afta di 1980z wid di riilizieshan se schuudent niid braada expuoja tu di wol az gluobalaizieshan prosiid.

Iweh-liid tu aili kanchavoershal intopritieshan bai Azwal Spenggla (Oswald Spengler) ah hAanal J. Tainbii (Arnold J. Toynbee), mongx adawandem.

Di Wol Ischri Asosieshan poblish di Joernal a Wol Ischri ebri kwaata sens 1990[41]. Di H-Wol diskoshan lis[42] saab az netwok komiunikieshan mongx praktishana a wol ischri, wid diskoshan mongx skala, anounsment, sylabos, bibliagrafi ah buk rivyuu.

Piipl ischriEdit

Piipl ischri a taip a istarikal wok we atemp fi akount fi istarikal ivent frah di pospektiv a kaman piipl. Piipl ischri a di ischri a di wol we a di tuori a mas muuvment ah bout di outsaidadem. Indivijal ar gruup we no ingkluud ina di paas ina adaels taip a raitn bout ischri a di praimeri fuokos, we ingkluud di disinfranchaiz, di opres, di puo, di nankanfaamis, ah di piipl we adawaiz deh figat. Di aatadem tipikali de pah di lef ah ab suoshalis magl ina deh main, laka ina di apruoch a di Ischri Wokshap muuvment ina Britn ina di 1960z[43].

Intilekchal ischriEdit

Intilekchal ischri ah di ischri a aidie imoerj ina di migl-20t senchri, wid di fuokos pah di intilekchaldem ah deh buk pah di wan an, ah pah dieda di todi a aidie az disimbadi abjek wid fi deh uona kiarier[44][45].

Poblik ischriEdit

Poblik ischri diskraib di braad rienj a aktiviti we piipl andatek wid soh chrienin ina di disiplin a ischri uu jinarali wok outsaida speshalaiz akademik setn. Poblik ischri praktis ab diip-diip ruut ina di ieria a istarik prezavieshan, aakaival sayans, uoral ischri, myuuziom kyuurietaship, ah ada rilietid fiil. Di toerm iself eh-bigin fi yuuz ina di Yunaitid Stiet ah Kianada ina di liet 1970z, ah di fiil bikom ingkriisinli profeshanalaiz sens dat taim de. Som a di muos kaman setn fi poblik ischri a myuuziom, istarik uom ah istarik sait, paak, baklfiil, aakaiv, flim ah telivijan kompini, ah aal lebl a gobament[46].

IstuorianEdit

Profeshanal ah amatior istuorian diskova, kalek, aaganiaz, ah prizent infamieshan bout paas ivent. Ina lis a istuorian, deh kiah gruup bai aada a di istarikal piiriad wen deh ena-rait ina, we a no nesiserili di siem az di piiriad deh speshalaiz ina. Kranikla ah analis, duo deh a no istuorian ina di chuu sens, aalso friikuentli ingkluud.

SuudoischriEdit

Suudoischri a toerm we aplai tu tex we popuot fi bi istarikal bai niecha bot we dipaat frah standad ischriagrafikal kanvenshan ina wie we andamain deh kangkluujan. Kluosli rilietid tu diseptiv istarikal rivijanizim, wok we jraa kanchovoshal kangkluujan frah nyuu, spekiuletiv, ar dispyuutid istarikal evidens, potikiula ina di fiil a nashinal, palitikal, milichri, ah rilijos afier, muotaim rijek az suudoischri.

Tiichin ischriEdit

Skalaship vs tiichinEdit

Wah mieja intilekchal bakl eh-tek plies a Britn ina di hoerli tuentiet senchri rigyaadin wa plies ischri tiichin ab ina yunivoersiti. A Axfad ah Kiembrij, skalaship eh-dongplie. Profesa Charles Harding Firth, Axfad Riijios Profesa a ischri ina 1904 ridikyuul di sistim az bes suut fi projuus syuupafishal joernalis. Di Axfad tyuutadem, uu eh-ab muo vuot dah di profesadem, fait bak fi defen deh sistim a-se iweh soksesfuli projuus Britn outstanin stietsman, adminischrieta, prelet, ah diplumat, ah datde mishan az valiebl az fi chrien skala. Di tyuutadem daminiet di dibiet antel afta di Sekan Wol Waar. Ifuos aspairin yong skala fi tiich a outlayin skuul, laka Manchesta Yunivoersiti, we Thomas Frederick Tout ena-profeshanalaiz di Ischri andagradiet pruogram bai inchajuus di todi a arijinal suos ah rikwaya dem fi rait tiisis[47][48].

Ina di Yunaitid Stiet, skalaship eh-kansanchriet a di mieja PhD-projuusin yunivoersitidem, wails laaj nomba a ada kalij ah yunivoersiti fuokos pah andagradiet tiichin. A tendansi ina di 21s senchri weh fi di lata skuuldem fi ingkriisinli dimaan skalali prodoktiviti frah deh yongga tenia-chrak fakolti. Fodamuo, yunivoersiti ingkriisinli rilai pah inexpensiv paat-taim ajongk fi du muos a di klaasruum tiichin[49].

NashinalizimEdit

Frah di arijin a nashinal skuul sistim ina di 19t senchri, di tiichin a ischri fi promuot nashinal sentiment ena ai prayariti. Ina di Yunaitid Stiet afta Wol Waar I, wah chrang muuvment imoerj a di yunivoersiti lebl fi tiich kuos ina Westan Siblizieshan, so az fi gi schuudent kaman eritij wid Yuurop. Ina di Yunaitid Stiet afta 1980 atenshan ingkriisinli muuv tuwadz tiichin wol ischri ar rikwaya schuudent fi tek kuos ina nan-westan kolcha, fi pripier schuudent fi laif ina gluobalaiz ikanami[50].

A di yunivoersiti lebl, istuorian dibiet di kuestian a weda ischri bilang muo tu suoshal sayans ar tu di yuumanitiz. Nof vyuu di fiil frah buot pospektiv.

Di tiichin a ischri ina French skuul eh-influens bai di Nouvelle histoire az diseminiet afta di 1960z bai Cahiers pédagogiques ah Enseignement ah ada joernal fi tiicha. Aalso influenshal ena di Institut national de recherche et de documentation pédagogique, (INRDP). Joseph Leif, di Inspekta-jinaral a tiicha chrienin, se pyuupl pitnidem shuda laan bout istuorian apruoch azwel az fax ah diet. Louis François, Diin a di Ischri/Jaagrafi gruup ina di Inspektaret a Nashinal Edikieshan advaiz se tiicha shuda provaid istarik dakiument ah promuot "aktiv metad" we wuda gi pyuupl "di imens apinis a diskovri." Propuonent se iwena riakshan gens di memarizieshan a niem ah diet we kiaraktaraiz tiichin ah lef di schuudentdem buorin. Chradishanalis eh-protes loud-loud se a weh puosmadan inovieshan we chretn fi lef di yuut ignarant a French piechriatizim ah nashinal aidentiti[51].

Bayas ina skuul tiichinEdit

Ina muos konchri ischri texbuk a tuul fi fasta nashinalizim ah piechriatizim, ah gi schuudent di ofishal lain bout nashinal henimidem[52].

Ina nof konchri ischri texbuk spansa bai di nashinal gobament ah deh rait fi put di nashinal eritij ina di muos fievarebl lait. Fi egzampl, ina Japan, menshan a di Nanking Masakraa don-rimuuv kliin-kliin frah texbuk ah di wuola di Sekan Wol Waar get koersri chriitment. Ada konchri eh-komplien[53]. A weh standad palisi ina kamiunis konchri fi prizent onggl a rijid Maaxis ischriagrafi[54][55].

Akademik istuorian eh-fait noftaim gens di palitisizieshan a di texbukdem, sohtaim wid sokses[56][57].

Ina 21s-senchri Joermani, di ischri korikiulom kanchuol bai di 16 stiet, ah kiaraktaraiz no bai syuupapiechriatizim bot reda bai "aamuos pasifistik ah dilibretli anpiechriatik andatuon" ah riflek "prinsipl faamiuliet bai intanashinal aaganizieshan laka UNESCO ar di Kongsl a Yuurop, so deh uorient tuwadz yuuman raits, dimakrasi ah piis." Di rizolt a dat "Joerman texbuk yuujali dongplie nashinal praid ah ambishan ah iem fi divelop andastanin a sitiznship senta pah dimakrasi, pruogres, yuuman raits, piis, talarans ah Yuropiyanis"[58].

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